A Complete Evaluation of Self-Reported Submit COVID-19 Signs Amo



The World Well being Group declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 22, 2020, roughly 3 months after the primary case of the illness was recognized.1,2 Since then, the illness continues to unfold in an unprecedented method the world over inflicting the lack of tens of millions of lives. As of July 4, 2022, greater than 546 million individuals had been affected and almost 6.3 million individuals misplaced their lives as a result of illness.3 In India, roughly 43.5 million individuals have been contaminated with the virus and greater than 525,000 of them have died.4

Whereas the international locations proceed to grapple with the rising variety of COVID-19 circumstances, there may be rising proof on lingering COVID-19 signs extending up to some months from the date of preliminary prognosis among the many survivors. A number of research, together with self-reported and systemic evaluations, have illustrated that round 50–87% of the hospitalized sufferers expertise not less than a number of publish COVID-19 signs (PCS) for a number of weeks.5–9 For instance, a self-reported on-line survey in Korea reported that 52.7% of the respondents have proven not less than one persistent COVID-19 symptom.6 One other research confirmed that 20% of the sufferers skilled PCS lasting greater than 3 months.10 A self-reported Swedish net questionnaires research reported 1 out of 10 with long-term signs for not less than 4 weeks.8 Such persisting and debilitating signs following COVID-19 imply that the hostile penalties of the pandemic don’t finish with restoration, and proceed a lot past the acute part of sickness.5

Because the pandemic continues to unfold globally, the variety of individuals dwelling with PCS will improve over time. Though the pure historical past of COVID-19 isn’t utterly recognized, it’s now properly acknowledged that COVID-19 is a multiorgan systemic illness with broad spectrum of manifestations.5 With tens of millions of people recovering, the long-term consequence of COVID-19 is more likely to change into a further burden on the healthcare supply system, particularly in low- and-middle-income international locations. Understanding PCS and related threat elements is essential to reorient the mannequin of care to make it extra attentive to the rising wants. Therefore, data on PCS is important to information improvement of acceptable infrastructure and manpower, thereby designing administration methods and affected person care plans in hospitals and rehabilitation amenities. The current research aimed to comprehensively assess self-reported PCS and related threat elements amongst beneficiaries of Worker Hospital Scheme of a tertiary healthcare establishment in Northern India.

Supplies and Strategies

Research Inhabitants

This cross-sectional research was performed amongst grownup inhabitants (these aged 18 years and above) who had been beneficiaries of Hospital Worker Scheme (EHS) of a tertiary healthcare institute in Northern India. The institute is among the largest tertiary canters within the nation with greater than 15,000 staff and greater than 3100 beds increasing throughout numerous medical subspecialties. The EHS was established within the institute to supply free healthcare companies to hospital staff and their dependents. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the hospital employees and their dependents have acquired free COVID-19 care companies for each outpatients and in-patients, together with COVID-19 vaccination. The inclusion standards for the research had been optimistic report of SARS CoV-2 take a look at from January 1, 2021 to April 30, 2021, and having recovered from the sickness. This record of COVID-19 recovered people (2037) was obtained from the Division of Hospital Administration of the establishment throughout the month of June 2022. From this record, we excluded contributors aged beneath 18 years, people who couldn’t contact telephonically earlier than sending the hyperlink and contributors not utilizing or not having information of WhatsApp. The variables recorded had been age, intercourse, date of diagnostic testing for COVID-19, and related contact particulars (like phone numbers). The required minimal pattern dimension was estimated based mostly on the seroprevalence amongst adults of 47.2% in megacities in December 2020,11 with a relative precision of 10%, energy of 80%, 95% confidence interval and a nonparticipation price of 20%. The ultimate estimated pattern dimension calculated was 773 people.

Research Definitions

Submit COVID-19 scientific signs: Symptom(s) that endured past 4 weeks from the date of SARS-CoV-2-positive take a look at performed utilizing both Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Response (RTPCR) or Cartridge Based mostly Nucleic Acid Amplification Take a look at (CBNAAT). Additional, in line with the timeframe, publish COVID-19 signs had been labeled as short-term publish COVID-19 signs (ST-PCS): signs current past 4 weeks after the SARS-CoV-2-positive take a look at and lasting lower than or as much as 12 weeks; and long-term publish COVID-19 signs (LT-PCS): signs current past 12 weeks after the SARS-CoV-2-positive take a look at.

Information Assortment

A semi-structured questionnaire was developed for the research. The questionnaire was digitized utilizing Google Types.12 Google Types is a web-based information assortment instrument that’s generally used for surveys.13,14 A nominal group method was used to develop the questionnaire. One researcher developed the primary draft of the research instrument after in depth overview of the related printed papers to make sure all attainable PCS. One skilled every was requested to overview the instrument from the specialties of endocrinology, inner drugs, psychiatry, ophthalmology, and pulmonary drugs, respectively. The questionnaire was revised based mostly on the suggestions acquired from the consultants throughout the group discussions (in particular person and on-line). The questionnaire included demographic data, and numerous attainable threat elements for publish COVID-19 manifestations. The ultimate part of the questionnaire consisted of an inventory of attainable publish COVID-19 signs that had been categorized based mostly on organ methods. Earlier than standardization, pre-testing of the questionnaire was achieved amongst non-study contributors who had recovered from COVID-19. The English language was translated into Hindi by a translator, and again translated into English to make sure the accuracy of the interpretation.

The info had been collected between June 16, 2021 and July 30, 2021. A minimal hole of 4 weeks was ensured between information assortment and COVID-19 testing date of contributors. All contributors assembly the inclusion standards had been contacted telephonically and had been requested to take part within the survey. The respondents who had been utilizing WhatsAppTM platform (Fb Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA) had been despatched the survey hyperlink utilizing the identical quantity. If any participant didn’t use WhatsAppTM on their telephone, they had been requested to supply an alternate cell quantity with WhatsAppTM put in. This was achieved to boost the participation price. If any respondent couldn’t present a WhatsApp quantity, or couldn’t learn each the English and Hindi languages, we requested the contributors for an appropriate time to name for telephone-based information assortment if they’re keen to take part.

WhatsAppTM is a well-liked medium for communication and has been utilized in many research as an digital platform for communication.15–17 As soon as the survey hyperlink was shared, the contributors had been requested to avoid wasting the sender quantity first after which to activate the survey hyperlink. Previous to inclusion within the survey, contributors had been required to supply knowledgeable e-consent. A complete of three reminders at a niche of 1–2 days had been despatched to contributors who didn’t reply to the survey hyperlink despatched to them earlier.

Ethics Assertion

The current research was reviewed and has been authorised by the Institute Ethics Committee of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (Ref. No.: IEC-365/04.06.2021).

Information Administration and Evaluation

The responses had been robotically collected in a Google spreadsheet linked to the info assortment type. The info had been analysed utilizing STATA model 15 (StataCorp 2015, Stata Statistical Software program: Launch 15, School Station, TX: StataCorp LP). The contributors had been divided into two teams, particularly contributors with publish COVID-19 signs and contributors with out signs for additional evaluation.

Descriptive evaluation was carried out to summarize the findings. Steady variables had been offered because the imply and commonplace deviation for regular distribution, whereas median and interquartile vary (IQR) had been used for variables that weren’t distributed usually. Submit COVID-19 manifestations had been offered as relative frequency. Moreover, publish COVID-19 signs had been categorized into 15 totally different teams in line with totally different organ methods. The length of signs was estimated from the date of confirmed take a look at and date of response of the contributors. Categorical information had been offered as absolute counts, percentages and had been additional in contrast utilizing the Chi Sq. and Fisher’s actual take a look at. Steady variables had been in contrast utilizing t-test. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression fashions had been used to discover explanatory variables related to publish COVID-19 signs. The outcomes had been offered as odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios (ORs and aORs), together with 95% confidence intervals. Variables that had been important at p<0.10 within the univariable regression evaluation had been included within the multivariate mannequin. Because it was a web-based survey, the guidelines for Reporting Outcomes of Web E-Surveys (CHERRIES) was adopted whereas reporting the info.18


Traits of the Research Inhabitants

We had been capable of ship the survey hyperlink to 1801 eligible contributors after exclusion. Of this, a complete of 773 people supplied consent and accomplished the survey questionnaire (completion price 42.9%). The median age of the respondents was 34.0 (IQR 27.0–44.0) years. The male respondents had been 56.4%. The physique mass index was equal to or greater than 25 kg/m2 for 319 (41.3%) respondents. Essentially the most generally reported blood group was B Rhesus optimistic (31.8%), adopted by O Rhesus optimistic (25.7%). Barely greater than half of the respondents (51.1%) had been presently employed within the hospital, and almost 80% of them had been graduate or above in schooling. A complete of 134 (17.3%) respondents smoked or chewed tobacco merchandise and 229 (29.6%) consumed alcohol (Desk 1).

Desk 1 Traits of the Research Inhabitants (N=773)

One-quarter (24.7%) had acquired the second dose of the vaccine on the time of the survey. Roughly three-fourths of contributors (75.2%) reported that they’d both asymptomatic or gentle acute COVID-19, and a pair of.71% reported that they skilled extreme acute COVID-19 (Desk 1). Roughly 169 (21.9%) contributors reported that they had been managed within the hospital. Of those, 23 (2.9%) required oxygen supplementation throughout administration. Moreover, 8.3% of the contributors thought of themselves to have poor or very poor general well being standing following COVID-19 sickness.

Submit-COVID-19 Signs

One-third of the contributors, ie, 257 (33.2%), reported that they’d not less than a number of ST-PCS (4 weeks or extra), however this quantity was lowered to 99 (12.8%) at 12 weeks or extra and to fifteen (0.90%) at 16 weeks or extra since SARS-CoV-2 take a look at positivity. Few respondents rated their severity of PCS as gentle (58.0%), average (34.6%), or extreme (4.93%; Desk 2). Throughout acute part of COVID-19 sickness, 68.1%, 27.6% and 4.2% had asymptomatic or gentle, average and extreme acute sickness, respectively amongst contributors who skilled PCS (Desk 2). One other 80.2% of the PCS respondents weren’t hospitalized throughout the acute COVID-19 sickness (Desk 1).

Desk 2 Characterization of Submit COVID-19 Signs (n=257)

Amongst people with post-COVID-19 signs, 85.6% reported non-specific publish COVID-19 signs (NPCS, Desk 2). This was adopted by musculoskeletal manifestations (49.8%), otorhinolaryngological signs (47.5%), neurological signs (47.0%), cardiorespiratory signs (42.4%), gastrointestinal signs (36.2%), ocular signs (31.9%), dermatological signs (31.5%), and cardiovascular signs (24.5%) and psychological well being signs (23.7%). The remaining organ system-specific signs, together with behavioural modifications, oral well being issues, and hepatobiliary, and endocrine, kidney perform abnormalities, had been reported by lower than 20% of the respondents (Determine 1). General, the generally reported signs had been fatigue, arthralgia and myalgia, hair loss and headache, cough, breathlessness, sleep problems, sore throat and decreased sense of odor and style (Determine 2).

Determine 1 Organ particular categorization of post-COVID-19 signs (N=257).

Determine 2 Frequency of self-reported publish COVID-19 signs amongst research contributors (N=257).

Characterization of Submit COVID-19 Signs

Nonspecific Submit COVID-19 Signs (NPCS)

Fatigue (79.4%) was the most typical manifestation amongst all post-COVID signs (Determine 2). The following most frequent amongst nonspecific post-COVID-19 symptom was weight reduction (17.9%), adopted by fever on and off (13.2%), and incapability to carry out routine actions (9.7%, Determine 1). Two respondents (0.78%) reported lack of weight after the COVID-19 illness.

Respiratory Signs

Contemplating the respiratory manifestations, roughly 25.3% of the contributors reported breathlessness, adopted by cough (24.9%). One particular person reported with chest tightness and heaviness.

Cardiovascular Signs

Among the many cardiovascular signs, 16.0% of the respondents reported that they’d palpitations adopted by feeling chilly and chills within the physique and decrease limbs (5.06%), 4.3% reported sweating at evening and 4.7% for swelling of the decrease limbs and one other 3.1% reported hypertension. Three contributors (1.2%) reported tachycardia, and one every reported chest ache and stroke as post-COVID-19 signs.

Musculo Skeletal Methods

There have been few musculoskeletal manifestations skilled by the contributors. The most typical had been arthralgia (33.46%) and myalgia (30.35%), adopted by low again ache (0.78%) and leg ache (0.78%).

ENT Signs

A number of oto-rhino-laryngological post-COVID-19 signs have been reported. Essentially the most frequent manifestations included loss or decreased sense of odor (22.57%) and sore throat (21.79%), adopted by lack of style (18.68%). Different reported oto-rhino-laryngological manifestations had been altered odor (7.0%), nasal blockage (8.17%), tinnitus (4.67%, 12/257), ache in sinus areas (3.5%), and so forth. Itching ears and otitis externa had been famous in a single participant every.

Eye Signs

Itching within the eyes (9.73%) was probably the most often reported post-COVID-19 ophthalmological manifestation, adopted by close to imaginative and prescient impairment (7.78%), burning eye sensation (7.0%), pink eyes (6.61%), and ache in eyes (6.23%). Different reported publish COVID-19 eye signs had been dryness in eyes (5.84%), distance imaginative and prescient impairment (3.89%) and international physique sensation (2.33%), whereas diplopia, asthenopia and darkish periorbital circle was reported by one respondent every.

Gastrointestinal, Endocrine and Hepatobiliary and Kidney Signs,

A variety of gastrointestinal signs was reported after restoration from COVID-19. Amongst them, lack of urge for food (15.9%), diarrhea (13.2%), belly ache (10.1%), nausea and vomiting (8.94%) had been probably the most prevalent manifestations. Different signs had been acidity (2.72%) and a rise in urge for food (0.78%) and constipation (0.78%). Whereas 3.5% of the people reported liver perform problems, one participant reported abnormalities in kidney perform exams.

Neurological Signs

A number of post-COVID-19 neurological manifestations have been reported as proven in Desk 2. Amongst them, probably the most often reported signs included headache (27.2%), sleep disturbance (25.3%), and incapability to pay attention (18.7%), adopted by lack of reminiscence (14.0%). Whereas 8.17% of the contributors skilled dizziness, one had a tingling sensation within the physique.

Psychological Well being

Among the many post-COVID-19 psychological signs, anxiousness dysfunction (13.6%) was probably the most often reported symptom as proven in Desk 2, adopted by temper swings (10.5%), panicky assaults (7.0%) and despair (5.84%) amongst recovered contributors.

Dermatological Signs

Quite a lot of post-COVID-19 dermatological manifestations had been being famous amongst contributors. Of them, hair loss (28.79%) and pores and skin rashes (7.39%) had been the most typical signs, adopted by discoloration of fingers or toes (3.5%). The least frequent dermatological manifestations had been pimples, itching of the entire physique, dryness of pores and skin, and nail discoloration (Desk 2). One particular person reported with Herpes zoster.

Dental Signs

A number of oral manifestations have been reported amongst sufferers who’ve recovered from COVID-19. Dry mouth (8.95%) and ache within the gum or enamel (5.45%) had been probably the most frequent post-COVID-19 oral well being issues. Different much less frequent oral manifestations had been oral ulcer (1.17%), sensitivity to chilly water (0.78%) and bleeding within the gum (0.78%).

Behavioral Issues

There have been studies on modifications in behaviors after restoration from COVID-19 (Desk 2). Amongst them, probably the most prevalent had been the elevated use of digital devices (24.9%) and lack of motivation (6.61%). Different much less widespread publish COVID-19-related behavioural modifications had been lack of curiosity in interacting with pals or peer teams (4.28%), new onset alcohol consumption and smoking or use of tobacco merchandise (0.39%).

Pre-Present Comorbidities Amongst Contributors

Among the many contributors, 33.8% reported that they’d not less than a number of related comorbidities earlier than the COVID-19 illness (Determine 3). Hypertension (10.1%) was the most typical comorbidity, adopted by diabetes mellitus (6.33%). Different reported widespread comorbid circumstances had been thyroid issues (3.8%), migraine (3.6%), coronary heart illness (2.46%) and bronchial asthma (2.46%). The remaining comorbidities had been current in lower than 2% of contributors (Determine 3).

Determine 3 Pre-existing comorbidities (self-reported) amongst research contributors (N=773).

Elements Related to Submit-COVID-19 Manifestations

The univariable logistic regression mannequin confirmed that a number of elements had been related to post-COVID-19 manifestations (Desk 3). Youthful age teams (absence of null worth in 95% CI of OR; 2.94, 2.11 and 6.62 for age the group 26–45; 46–60; 61–70 years), male gender (OR: 0.59) people working apart from the hospital (OR: 0.55), absence of co-morbidities (OR: 1.81) and those that acquired a second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (OR: 0.61) had a decrease threat for post-COVID-19 signs. Oxygen supplementation throughout therapy, and the severity of COVID-19 sickness had been positively related to the event of PCS.

Desk 3 Elements Related to Submit COVID-19 Signs

The multivariate evaluation (Desk 3) confirmed that PCS was 1.57 instances extra more likely to develop in pre-existing comorbid contributors than in wholesome contributors, 4.07 instances extra possible in sufferers with oxygen supplementation throughout therapy from non-oxygenation sufferers. Additional, about 2.23 instances for gentle and a pair of.66 instances for average COVID-19 sickness usually tend to develop PCS than in asymptomatic sufferers. People who smoke in comparison with nonsmokers had been discovered to have a protecting impact in univariable evaluation, however within the multivariable evaluation, after adjusting for different explanatory variables, smoking was not related to PCS.

One of many vital findings within the multivariable regression mannequin was that the chances of growing PCS had been decrease amongst people who acquired a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine compared to unvaccinated people (aOR 0.61; 95% CI 0.40–0.96, Desk 3). The multivariable logistic regression mannequin revealed that older age group, feminine gender, healthcare employees, oxygen supplementation throughout COVID-19 administration, cognitive or reminiscence impairment, severity of acute COVID-19 sickness, and unvaccinated standing had been unbiased threat elements for PCS (Desk 3).


The present research was performed amongst SARS-CoV-2 optimistic people who examined optimistic and recovered 4 weeks or extra earlier than the date of inception of knowledge assortment. They had been requested in regards to the standing of COVID-19 sickness throughout the telephonic interview to make sure that the knowledge collected was for PCS. As of now, it’s virtually difficult to check the findings and the prevalence of PCS throughout numerous research on account of variations in evaluation time since restoration, and variability within the length whereas defining publish COVID-19 signs. Subsequently, the prevalence of PCS, up to now, has ranged from 27.8% to 95.0% relying on the time of knowledge assortment after restoration.6,7,19,20

The current research confirmed that the prevalence of PCS was 33.2%, no matter the severity of COVID-19. This means that one in three people have persistent PCS after 4 weeks or extra following the optimistic take a look at. Moreover, it’s evident that many sufferers proceed to expertise persistent signs after COVID-19, no matter illness severity throughout acute sickness and the requirement of hospitalization. Research have reported a number of PCS in non-hospitalized sufferers after a number of months of restoration from COVID-19.21,22 Though people reporting the severity of PCS had been fewer in quantity, PCS ranged from gentle to extreme.

Within the present research, the prevalence of PCS was barely increased in males (56.4%) as in comparison with females (43.6%); nevertheless, females had been extra more likely to develop PCS than males. The distinction in physiological and socio-cultural elements could also be attainable rationalization for this, however additional research is warranted to discover the underlying causes. A feminine preponderance of PCS has additionally been reported in different research.21,23 The current research additionally indicated that older people had been extra more likely to develop PCS than youthful age teams (Tables 1 and three). A number of research additionally famous that rising age is a threat issue for PCS.19,20,24 Schooling, alcohol consumption, physique mass index, and blood teams didn’t have any important impact on the event of PCS.

The research famous that people working within the healthcare sector had the next threat of growing PCS than people who had been working in different sectors. Within the multivariable regression evaluation, non-healthcare employees are at lesser threat of getting PCS than staff working within the hospital (OR: 0.65, Desk 3).

Contributors with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 sickness are at the next threat for PCS after restoration as proven in univariate evaluation. A longitudinal follow-up research will probably be useful to evaluate the length of persistence for PCS amongst contributors with extreme acute sickness.

Within the current research, fatigue was the most typical symptom amongst all of the PCSs, reaching as much as 80.3%. Within the research performed elsewhere, together with systemic evaluations and meta-analyses, fatigue was probably the most often reported symptom with a prevalence starting from 30% to 82.9%.6,21,25,26 The remaining signs, resembling arthralgia and myalgia, hair loss, headache, shortness of breath, sleep disturbance, cough, lack of odor and style, had been famous in between 20% and 34% of the contributors. The pathophysiology behind such a variety of manifestations isn’t but clear, nevertheless, it signifies multiorgan involvement as within the acute part of the sickness. The attainable immunological mechanism involving the multi-organ system following SARS-CoV-2 an infection has been illustrated to elucidate the looks of those long-lasting signs in different literature.6,27

The current research additionally confirmed that the chances of getting PCS had been lowered by 39% in people who had acquired two doses of COVID-19 vaccine in comparison with individuals who didn’t obtain any dose (Desk 3). That is a further useful discovering for the COVID-19 vaccine that has already been discovered to scale back the danger of SARS CoV-2 an infection and the severity of acute sickness. Subsequently, vaccination towards COVID-19 must be inspired among the many eligible inhabitants as early as attainable.

A small share of recovered sufferers additionally skilled each close to and distance visible impairment, and dry eyes. It isn’t clear whether or not signs could possibly be unintended effects of medicine that had been generally used throughout the acute administration or associated to weak spot of the ocular muscular tissues. The research additionally indicated a robust affiliation between pre-existing co-morbidities and the presence of PCS. Comparable pre-existing co-morbidities resembling hypertension, persistent respiratory ailments, and diabetes mellitus have proven to be determinants of the extended COVID-19 signs as illustrated in different research.24,28,29 Moreover, our research confirmed that contributors who had been managed throughout the acute part of COVID-19 sickness with oxygen supplementation had been extra more likely to develop PCS than contributors who had been managed with out oxygen. The same discovering was proven in one other research.24

Amongst psychosocial behavioral modifications, a sizeable variety of recovered topics additionally reported anxiousness, and temper problems, together with panic and despair within the present research. Varied modifications in behavioral elements within the current research had been famous, resembling a considerable improve in the usage of digital devices being the most typical, among the many survivors. A hyperlink with psychological and behavioural issues amongst recovered sufferers has additionally been reported in different research.6,25,28

General, we noticed that the PCS concerned nearly all organ methods of the physique. Such multiorgan involvement in PCS has been described in different literature.6,14,26 Comparable outcomes had been reported in a cell phone app-based research in the UK.27 This means that managing such broadly variable signs requires a holistic multidisciplinary method involving a number of specialties, together with hospital and community-based rehabilitation packages to help healthcare and psychological wants for an prolonged time reasonably than organ-specific administration.

To this point, it’s not but absolutely understood how lengthy the PCS will persist amongst COVID-19 survivors. Along with our findings, numerous earlier research reported that SARS-CoV-2 can nonetheless infect people regardless of vaccination, though the severity of the illness is lowered. PCS also can have an effect on people whatever the severity of the acute part of COVID-19 sickness. Subsequently, there’s a must develop a PCS care mannequin that’s appropriate for useful resource restricted international locations. One such mannequin is being run to handle PCS in the UK.28,29 People with PCS who’ve pre-existing comorbidities want a correct follow-up technique as a result of such individuals are potential candidates for growing important disabilities. As well as, just a few sufferers who had recovered from COVID-19 additionally had newly detected diabetes, irregular renal, liver, and thyroid perform exams and stroke as in different research.24 These sufferers have to be investigated completely per se, together with those that report poor or very poor well being following COVID-19 and have to be managed accordingly. Observe-up is critical to know whether or not such circumstances could possibly be reversible sooner or later of time.

The constraints of our research embrace first, we relied on self-reported information so there could also be potential for socially fascinating responses or recall bias in contributors. Because it was a cross-sectional research, we can not rule out the informal relation of a few of manifestations whether or not it was on account of COVID-19 or persisting well being issues. Second, we didn’t entry the investigation data of the respondents. Subsequently, the ranking of severity of acute sickness and administration data had been based mostly on contributors’ responses. Moreover, additional research is warranted to evaluate any co-relation with metabolic problems and cardio-respiratory signs. Third, our research is probably not really a consultant of all communities since we procured the record from one institute, and we additionally couldn’t acquire information from the contributors who weren’t utilizing both smartphones or WhatsAppTM.


The PCS impacts a variety of physique organ methods, whatever the severity of the acute part of sickness. Feminine gender, older age, oxygen supplementation throughout the acute sickness, related comorbidities, and extreme acute sickness are threat elements for PCS. Such persistent COVID-19 manifestations not solely burden the affected people and their households but additionally pose challenges to healthcare and public well being companies. We advise an built-in care mannequin involving all related healthcare disciplines whereas managing PCS within the outpatient setting at each healthcare facility, reasonably than organ-specific approaches. Intuitively, our findings spotlight the significance of vaccination within the discount of PCS in people who’ve acquired two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine in comparison with unvaccinated people. Steady follow-up will probably be vital to evaluate additional extended publish COVID-19 well being issues. A community-based rehabilitation programme, together with psychological help, must be part of publish COVID-19 care.


We wish to thank all respondents who’re staff of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, and their respective dependents for his or her participation within the post-COVID-19 survey. We thank information entry operator Mr Vikas for his efforts in changing the questionnaires into digital variations utilizing Google Types and help in information cleansing. We additionally prolong our gratitude to Mr Rajesh Sharma for his unconditional assist in information evaluation. Lastly, we admire the employees working in database administration of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, for his or her help in offering the record of contributors for the research.


Indian Council of Medical Analysis, New Delhi funded (Challenge Grant no. 2021-6506/F1) this research. The funder doesn’t have any function within the design and conduct of the current research. The investigators carried out the current research among the many people who had been beneficiaries of a tertiary hospital well being scheme.


The authors report no conflicts of pursuits on this work.


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